The Trump Administration’s New “Peace in the Middle East”: What does that Mean for Palestine?

On September 15, 2020, the Trump White House brokered the Abraham Accords between Israel, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Bahrain, recognizing the normalization of relations between the three Middle Eastern states.[1] From the Trump administration’s perspective, this peace agreement bolsters President Trump’s image as a peacemaker and reaffirms the United States’ promise to, “help … Read more

International Patent Registration: The PCT System

The patent system was created to give inventors the right to “exclude others from making, selling, or using [their] invention.”[1] Patent owners therefore want widespread protection both in the country in which the invention was created or is predominantly used and international protection. There is not, at this time, a single, all-encompassing international patent application. … Read more

The Right to Health: An International Obligation to Provide Access to Medication and Healthcare

Over the past 70 years, the international legal community has created a legal obligation for states to provide access to health care and medicines to its citizens through three legally binding treaties and conventions. This obligation is called a right to health and is primarily created through the 1946 Constitution of the World Health Organization, … Read more

The Israel Legal System and its Effects on Marriage

The Israeli legal system organizes their courts into a system of general and specialized courts.[1] Included in specialized courts, which are granted limited jurisdiction, are their religious courts.[2] Israel is unique in its use of religious courts; they existed when the territory was still under Ottoman control through the 16th and 20th centuries and their … Read more

Hungary’s Road to Authoritarianism – Through the Demise of a Liberal Democracy and Free Judiciary

INTRODUCTION Over the past decade, through the aftermath of the 2008/09 financial crisis, the 2015 refugee crisis, and the following increase in right-wing extremist politics, Hungary has taken on the role of a European Union member state in democratic decline. With the election of a new Prime Minister in 2010 and his quick turnaround in … Read more

Does the U.S. Space Force Violate the Outer Space Treaty?

The National Institute of Standards and Technology estimates the economic benefit of the space-based Global Positioning System (GPS) for private sector use between 1984-2017 at $1.4T.[1] By some estimates, Newspace, the private spaceflight industry, will be worth another trillion dollars by the 2040s.[2] Despite or perhaps because of its enormous space interests, America has stated … Read more

The Scottish EU Citizenship Limbo

As Brexit wraps up, Scotland leaves the EU against its peoples’ will.[1] Implicitly, the EU decided that continuing to recognize Scots as EU citizens would unlawfully disrespect British sovereignty.[2] The decision represents a remarkable (if not surprising) victory for nationalism.[3] The decision means that, when weighing the competing interests of nations and citizens, the EU … Read more

COVID-19: An Erosion of Women’s Rights Guaranteed under International Law

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest communicable disease that poses a threat of global spread. In the past twenty years, there have been seven[1] such diseases, including COVID-19.[2] In 2015, the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General created a High Level Panel on the Global Response to Health Crises.[3] In the 2017 Final Report, the High … Read more

Cyber Attacks & Modern Warfare

Cyber-attacks have increased in frequency, presenting a difficult issue in modern international law. The effects of a cyber-attack have the capacity to cause widespread and significant damage. The relative novelty of these forms of attacks bring several challenges. On a global scale, nations are rapidly becoming more reliant on technology and related information.[1] Experts have … Read more

Are Economic Sanctions Effective? Not in North Korea

Sanctions are a tool used by governments and coalitions such as the United Nations to “incentivize change in a target[ country]’s behavior” by making it more costly or difficult for them to engage in that behavior.[1] The United States is particularly effective at levying sanctions since the U.S. dollar is currently the global reserve currency … Read more