Hungary’s Road to Authoritarianism – Through the Demise of a Liberal Democracy and Free Judiciary

INTRODUCTION Over the past decade, through the aftermath of the 2008/09 financial crisis, the 2015 refugee crisis, and the following increase in right-wing extremist politics, Hungary has taken on the role of a European Union member state in democratic decline. With the election of a new Prime Minister in 2010 and his quick turnaround in … Read more

Does the U.S. Space Force Violate the Outer Space Treaty?

The National Institute of Standards and Technology estimates the economic benefit of the space-based Global Positioning System (GPS) for private sector use between 1984-2017 at $1.4T.[1] By some estimates, Newspace, the private spaceflight industry, will be worth another trillion dollars by the 2040s.[2] Despite or perhaps because of its enormous space interests, America has stated … Read more

The Scottish EU Citizenship Limbo

As Brexit wraps up, Scotland leaves the EU against its peoples’ will.[1] Implicitly, the EU decided that continuing to recognize Scots as EU citizens would unlawfully disrespect British sovereignty.[2] The decision represents a remarkable (if not surprising) victory for nationalism.[3] The decision means that, when weighing the competing interests of nations and citizens, the EU … Read more

COVID-19: An Erosion of Women’s Rights Guaranteed under International Law

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest communicable disease that poses a threat of global spread. In the past twenty years, there have been seven[1] such diseases, including COVID-19.[2] In 2015, the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General created a High Level Panel on the Global Response to Health Crises.[3] In the 2017 Final Report, the High … Read more

Cyber Attacks & Modern Warfare

Cyber-attacks have increased in frequency, presenting a difficult issue in modern international law. The effects of a cyber-attack have the capacity to cause widespread and significant damage. The relative novelty of these forms of attacks bring several challenges. On a global scale, nations are rapidly becoming more reliant on technology and related information.[1] Experts have … Read more

Are Economic Sanctions Effective? Not in North Korea

Sanctions are a tool used by governments and coalitions such as the United Nations to “incentivize change in a target[ country]’s behavior” by making it more costly or difficult for them to engage in that behavior.[1] The United States is particularly effective at levying sanctions since the U.S. dollar is currently the global reserve currency … Read more

Refugee Children: The Challenges They Face and the Efforts to Overcome Them

Introduction In 2018, there were 25.9 million refugees globally- the highest number ever seen.[1] Over half of these refuges are children.[2] The refugee crisis is a global issue that affects more than any one country or region. However, two countries account for nearly half of the child refugees in the world: Syria and Afghanistan.[3] The … Read more

Gathering Migrants at Turkey-Greece Border Indicative of Larger International Problems

While the COVID-19 continues to disrupt the world in the form of travel bans, quarantined cities, and plummeting stock markets, another less recognized crisis is underway in Europe. On February 27th, thirty-three Turkish soldiers were killed in an airstrike in Idlib in north-western Syria.[1] The Russian backed Assad regime justified their attack by stating that … Read more

Anti-Muslim Policies in India Cause Severe Unrest

Large protests have swept the country of India since early December 2019 after the Indian government, led by the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), enacted the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) on December 12, 2019.[1] Once largely peaceful protests between Muslim and Hindu groups are now violent clashes between public and private individuals living in … Read more

Data Privacy Protection, Consumer Consensus, and International Regulations

I. International Internet Privacy Concerns Global tech consumers are concerned about the collection and utilization of private data by Big Tech.[1] These concerns in no small part arise from recent instances of consumer data privacy breaches, including the Cambridge Analytica hack,[2] the Equifax breach,[3] YouTube’s violation of the Children’s Online Privacy Act (“COPPA”),[4] etc. Consequently, … Read more