Tag Archive | "resettlement"

Understanding the Syrian Refugee Crisis and How Refugees Receive Asylum in the United States: Part 3

Photo Credit: AP Photo/David Zalubowski

This third installment focusing on Syrian refugees will address what a refugee goes through when he or she finally makes it to the United States and what we, especially those of us in Colorado, can do to help.

Once a refugee has passed the security clearance screening, they then fly to one of five designated airports in the United States. Border Protection checks their documents and conducts additional security checks. Then, the refugee is assigned to a refugee relocation services program. In Colorado, the Colorado Department of Human Services oversees the refugee relocation programs conducted by the Lutheran Family Services and the African Community Center.

These two programs help refugees find a place to live, work, and study. They also help them learn English, find medical care, and provide lawyers who can help with their legal questions. In 2013, the last year for which statistics have been released, 1,708 refugees arrived in Colorado. They live in several towns and cities throughout the state, but mostly along the front-range, with the majority living in Denver. In 2016, nearly 50 Syrian refugees arrived in Colorado. Again, it bears repeating, in order for a refugee from Syria to enter the United States, that person must go through 18-24 months of extreme vetting. That vetting determines if the person poses any potential risks to the country. If a risk is discovered, they are not allowed in.

Once a refugee is settled and integrated into a community, that refugee creates an economic benefit to the community. A recent study showed that for every $120-$126 of aid given to a refugee in Rwanda, that same refugee created an annual real income benefit of $205-$253 to the community. Utica, New York, a town that once saw dwindling numbers of residents and sustained economic decline, has now seen a turnaround because it has welcomed so many refugees.

Economist Jeffrey Sachs points out that while there are some negative consequences to hosting refugees in a community (they pay fewer taxes and generally rely on social services until they can become established), they also add economic benefits by bringing added skills to the workforce and earning less than what they could contribute to society as a whole.

Other cities, like Cleveland, have seen massive economic benefits in welcoming refugees. The city initially invested $4.8 million in resettling refugees. The economic benefit to the community resulted in $48 million, a 1000% return on investment. This is partly because refugees are often entrepreneurs who disproportionally create jobs and stimulate demands for new products and services in their local communities.

Having established that Syrian refugees are extremely vetted, are moving to Colorado, and, if they are like other refugees, will create an economic benefit to the community, the question then becomes, how can we help them? Both Lutheran Family Services and the African Community Center need volunteers that will meet refugees at airports and then drive them to their new homes. They need volunteers who can furnish their apartments, teach them English, and act as a local guide to help them become acquainted with their new homes.

 

David Coats is a staff editor on the Denver Journal of International Law & Policy.

Posted in 1TVFA Posts, 2Featured Articles, David Coats, DJILP StaffComments (0)

Understanding the Syrian Refugee Crisis and How Refugees Receive Asylum in the United States: Part 2

Image Credit: UNHCR

The first part of this three-part series explained what the causes of the Syrian Refugee Crisis are and where the crisis stands now. The second portion of this series will explore the process a Syrian refugee must go through to receive asylum in the United States. This is important information for all of us to know because of the confusion, lack of information, and fear associated with allowing refugees from this war-torn area into our countries. The intent of this article is to give a clear and unbiased overview of what a Syrian refugee must go through to receive asylum in the United States. This information could also be informative when discussing how, if, and why we should welcome refugees into our communities.

How do they apply?

All refugees apply for asylum through the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR). The UNHCR is an international organization under the United Nations that protects and assists refugees. Under UNHCR guidelines, an applicant may qualify for resettlement in another country if: (1) a well-founded fear of persecution based on race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion can be demonstrated; (2) the applicant is outside of his or her country of nationality; and (3) the applicant is unable or unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country. If such a person does qualify for asylum under the UNHCR’s standards, then that person will be referred to a third country for resettlement.

If that third country is the United States, the refugee must apply with the federal Resettlement Support Center and go through a rigorous 18-24 month screening process. During the rigorous screening process, officials investigate refugees to ensure the refugee’s story is legitimate and that the refugee will not pose a threat to the health or safety of the United States. The screening involves the participation of the U.S. State Department, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Defense Department, the National Counterterrorism Center, and the FBI. These agencies double-check the refugee’s personal biographical statement and use biometric information to ensure the person’s story and identity are legitimate. Moreover, these agencies check for connections to known bad actors, outstanding warrants, and other information related to whether the person is a potential security risk. Refugees are also interviewed by DHS agents and medically tested for communicable diseases. In sum, seeking asylum is the most difficult and stringent way for a person to enter the United States.

What is different about the process for Syrian refugees?

For Syrian refugees the process goes one step further by requiring them to go through the Syrian Enhanced Review process where the refugee applicant’s file is further scrutinized for accuracy and veracity. The U.S. government added this extra step especially for Syrian refugees “due to the circumstances in Syria.” These circumstances obviously include the war, but also the fact that ISIS operatives are fighting in Syria. As many have observed, the biggest fear in allowing Syrian refugees into the country is the fear that an ISIS operative might pose as a refugee and sneak through the system and commit an act of terrorism in the United States. To prevent that possibility, the U.S. government created the Syrian Enhanced Review. Today, Syrian refugees are subject to the highest level of security checks of any category of traveler to the United States. If there is any doubt about the veracity of an applicant’s story, the applicant will not be admitted.

What next?

For the first several years of the Syrian Civil War the United States accepted a very small number of refugees. Up until last year, the United States received approximately 2,200 Syrian refugees while over 1 million fled to Lebanon. Last year, President Obama promised to increase the number of refugees to 10,000 by the end of the fiscal year (September 2016). That goal was reached in August 2016.

The United States is in a difficult situation. In a post 9/11 society, where fears of domestic and international terrorism abound, we must weigh the concern for safety with our duty to welcome and care for refugees. Indeed, welcoming refugees is a large part of the legacy of the United States. Given the dire circumstances and the difficulty in passing the test compared to the likelihood of a terrorist sneaking through, one must wonder if the screening process is too stringent? The high standards do screen out threats to public safety while nearly guaranteeing that any Syrian refugee that makes its way to the United States is not a threat. When Syrian refugees do pass the high standards set before them, what happens to them next and how can we be a part of it? That question will be answered in the next and final post, addressing what a refugee goes through when he or she finally makes it to the United States and what we, especially those of us in Colorado, can do to help.

 

David Coats is a staff editor on the Denver Journal of International Law & Policy.

Posted in 1TVFA Posts, 2Featured Articles, David Coats, DJILP StaffComments (0)

Understanding the Syrian Refugee Crisis and How Refugees Receive Asylum in the United States: Part 1

Photo Credit: EPA

The Syrian Refugee Crisis is not only a problem for residents in Europe and the Middle East; it is a problem for all members of the global community. The Syrian Refugee Crisis has become an issue in Europe and the Middle East because the war has created a massive influx of refugees who need food, shelter, and medical help. The crisis is a problem for the broader global community because all people have a duty to take care of each other, while also ensuring the health and safety of our communities. What are we to do when some nation-states/countries want to welcome a refugee and others are fearful the refugee might be a wolf in sheep’s clothing? This three-part series will explain the cause of the Refugee Crisis, the current stance on the situation, the process for Syrian Refugees seeking asylum in the United States, and finally, what we can do to welcome refugees while also ensuring our local health and safety.

What is causing it?

As with any crisis, there are several contributing factors to the Syrian Refugee Crisis. First and foremost is the civil war that has been raging on in the country since 2011. In the past five years, 11 million Syrians (roughly half of the Syrian population) have been killed or displaced because of the civil war. Currently, there are 4.8 million Syrian refugees in the world. While most of those fleeing the country have sought sanctuary in Lebanon, others have fled to neighboring countries like Jordan or Turkey. Other contributing factors to the crisis include Germany’s promise to accept asylum seekers, Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad’s conscription of practically all men under 30, and the underfunded international effort to address the situation.

What is the current status?

Currently, the EU has taken steps to quell the Refugee Crisis by making a relocation deal with Turkey. The EU and Turkey reached an agreement where Turkey will take many of the refugees in Europe and secure its western border in return for $7 billion from the EU. The EU started a pilot program where it will give Syrian refugees pre-paid Visa debit cards worth $30 a month. The hope for this program is that it will help fuel the local economy and meet some of the needs of refugees both in and outside of established refugee camps. It remains to be seen if and how this pilot program will be successful.

Where are the refugees going?

The vast majority of Syrian refugees remain in the Middle East. They are in Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt, while roughly 10 percent have fled to Europe and far fewer have made their way to the United States and Canada. For those in the Middle-East, many live in refugee camps with worsening conditions, but many others live discreetly in urban centers, working odd jobs and trying desperately to make ends meet. With no end in sight for the Syrian civil war, the refugee crisis will only get worse before it gets better. The temporary solutions the surrounding communities pieced together to address the emergency influx are becoming unbearable permanent situations. The global community must find a solution addressing both the symptoms and the causes of the refugee crisis.

Whether living in a camp or in a city, many Syrian refugees are applying for asylum in Europe and North America. However, only a select few are chosen to resettle in the United States. How are they chosen, what screening processes do they go through and what happens to them when they arrive in the U.S.? These questions will be explored in the next two articles.

 

David Coats is a staff editor on the Denver Journal of International Law & Policy.

Posted in 1TVFA Posts, 2Featured Articles, David Coats, DJILP StaffComments (0)


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