The Israel Legal System and its Effects on Marriage

The Israeli legal system organizes their courts into a system of general and specialized courts.[1] Included in specialized courts, which are granted limited jurisdiction, are their religious courts.[2] Israel is unique in its use of religious courts; they existed when the territory was still under Ottoman control through the 16th and 20th centuries and their … Read more

Hungary’s Road to Authoritarianism – Through the Demise of a Liberal Democracy and Free Judiciary

INTRODUCTION Over the past decade, through the aftermath of the 2008/09 financial crisis, the 2015 refugee crisis, and the following increase in right-wing extremist politics, Hungary has taken on the role of a European Union member state in democratic decline. With the election of a new Prime Minister in 2010 and his quick turnaround in … Read more

Does the U.S. Space Force Violate the Outer Space Treaty?

The National Institute of Standards and Technology estimates the economic benefit of the space-based Global Positioning System (GPS) for private sector use between 1984-2017 at $1.4T.[1] By some estimates, Newspace, the private spaceflight industry, will be worth another trillion dollars by the 2040s.[2] Despite or perhaps because of its enormous space interests, America has stated … Read more

The Scottish EU Citizenship Limbo

As Brexit wraps up, Scotland leaves the EU against its peoples’ will.[1] Implicitly, the EU decided that continuing to recognize Scots as EU citizens would unlawfully disrespect British sovereignty.[2] The decision represents a remarkable (if not surprising) victory for nationalism.[3] The decision means that, when weighing the competing interests of nations and citizens, the EU … Read more

COVID-19: An Erosion of Women’s Rights Guaranteed under International Law

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest communicable disease that poses a threat of global spread. In the past twenty years, there have been seven[1] such diseases, including COVID-19.[2] In 2015, the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General created a High Level Panel on the Global Response to Health Crises.[3] In the 2017 Final Report, the High … Read more

Cyber Attacks & Modern Warfare

Cyber-attacks have increased in frequency, presenting a difficult issue in modern international law. The effects of a cyber-attack have the capacity to cause widespread and significant damage. The relative novelty of these forms of attacks bring several challenges. On a global scale, nations are rapidly becoming more reliant on technology and related information.[1] Experts have … Read more

Are Economic Sanctions Effective? Not in North Korea

Sanctions are a tool used by governments and coalitions such as the United Nations to “incentivize change in a target[ country]’s behavior” by making it more costly or difficult for them to engage in that behavior.[1] The United States is particularly effective at levying sanctions since the U.S. dollar is currently the global reserve currency … Read more

Refugee Children: The Challenges They Face and the Efforts to Overcome Them

Introduction In 2018, there were 25.9 million refugees globally- the highest number ever seen.[1] Over half of these refuges are children.[2] The refugee crisis is a global issue that affects more than any one country or region. However, two countries account for nearly half of the child refugees in the world: Syria and Afghanistan.[3] The … Read more

Gathering Migrants at Turkey-Greece Border Indicative of Larger International Problems

While the COVID-19 continues to disrupt the world in the form of travel bans, quarantined cities, and plummeting stock markets, another less recognized crisis is underway in Europe. On February 27th, thirty-three Turkish soldiers were killed in an airstrike in Idlib in north-western Syria.[1] The Russian backed Assad regime justified their attack by stating that … Read more