Beyond the Binary: Centering TGNC Rights in International Prison Reform

In response to contemporary concerns and calls to address the unprecedented expansion of the prison industrial complex, the international legal community highlighted the rights and dignity of incarcerated individuals as a focal point of modern human rights discourse. [1]While the United Nations (U.N.) has addressed special considerations for incarcerated women and children, the unique needs … Read more

A New Era of Corporate Accountability: Mandatory Human Rights Due Diligence

The “Business and Human Rights Galaxy” that governs corporate accountability for human rights abuses in supply chains lacks sufficient legal incentives for businesses to adhere.[1] In 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council endorsed the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, establishing a global standard of practice expected of all States and businesses.[2] The … Read more

Solving the U.S. Plastic Crisis: Chemical Recycling to Advance Plastic to Fuel Creation

A plastic crisis is currently gripping the United States with little reprieve in sight. With the unpredictability of the oil and gas market, major producers in the industry are turning their attention to the creation of plastic, resulting in the glut of existing avenues of recycling while overwhelming current landfills. To counter this substantial increase … Read more

Missed Connections? Evaluating the Global Spread and Legality of Mandatory SIM Registration in a Modern National Security Context

In popular culture, a “burner” phone is a pre-paid cell phone which can be “purchased without providing a name or Social Security number.” Also known as a “dope” phone, it is typically a low-cost disposable device purchased with cash, without a contract, and, therefore, which has no “subscriber” or “owner” information associated with it. In … Read more

International Patent Registration: The PCT System

The patent system was created to give inventors the right to “exclude others from making, selling, or using [their] invention.”[1] Patent owners therefore want widespread protection both in the country in which the invention was created or is predominantly used and international protection. There is not, at this time, a single, all-encompassing international patent application. … Read more

The COVID-19 Pandemic in a Time of Deglobalization: Challenges and Perspectives for Global Governance and International Cooperation

This text assesses global governance and international cooperation in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic considering deglobalization. Issues with the functioning of global governance have highlighted flaws and gaps in the international cooperative architecture. The challenges arise from the legal nature of the WHO and its norms, multipolarity growth, institutional inertia, complexity of problems, and … Read more

The Israel Legal System and its Effects on Marriage

The Israeli legal system organizes their courts into a system of general and specialized courts.[1] Included in specialized courts, which are granted limited jurisdiction, are their religious courts.[2] Israel is unique in its use of religious courts; they existed when the territory was still under Ottoman control through the 16th and 20th centuries and their … Read more


This article will look at international frameworks and regional efforts which are guiding the mission to eliminate the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) globally. The article will then consider the challenges to monitoring and enforcement of laws prohibiting the practice including arguments that it is a religious practice which is protected by international law. … Read more

The Scottish EU Citizenship Limbo

As Brexit wraps up, Scotland leaves the EU against its peoples’ will.[1] Implicitly, the EU decided that continuing to recognize Scots as EU citizens would unlawfully disrespect British sovereignty.[2] The decision represents a remarkable (if not surprising) victory for nationalism.[3] The decision means that, when weighing the competing interests of nations and citizens, the EU … Read more